While floods regularly occur in the water cycle, they can also be a devastating force of destruction and death. It is feasible to reduce the devastation caused by floods in a variety of ways. While floods can happen anywhere, it is more common in low-lying areas, possibly not expected.
Each flood can do a variety of harm to your home, and the extent of that damage will depend on the kind of flood you’re facing. Knowing which sort of flood can cause damage to your home is crucial to preparing for the possibility of disaster and ensuring that your family and you can get to safety immediately in case of an emergency.
Understanding Flood Types
Because floods might involve as little as several inches of water or even several feet, their features vary extensively. They also can rapidly move while gradually gaining more momentum. Various types of floods and the causes of their development will be discussed here.
1. Flash Flood
Flash floods can occur in the event of heavy rains falling quickly. If the water goes deep down a dry stream bed, flash flooding could be miles away from where rainfall fell. In minutes, a dry stream can transform into a raging river. Flash floods can strike almost anywhere; however, they’re more frequent in mountainous areas and tiny drainage basins.
The lack of clay-rich vegetation and soils in the desert southwest also contributes. Fields that are heavily vegetated are less likely to flood because plants slow water as it runs over the land.
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2. Coastal Flood
The flooding along the coast could be classified into two major categories: surge flooding and rising sea levels flooding. These floods can occur anywhere close to an open body of water. Flooding in coastal areas is caused by barometric pressure, tidal streams, and storms. Storm surge is the movement of water onto the shores by the storm’s force.
Coastal flooding can be mild or even severe, based on how strong the storm is and how fast it’s moving, how big it is, the speed at which it is moving, the form of the land both onshore and offshore and how many people are on the coast.
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3. River Flood
This type of flood happens when the river’s banks are flooded by rising water. Any stream or river can flood. Extreme rainfalls from tropical storms, persistent thunderstorms, snowmelt, and frozen jams cause flooding in rivers. Inflations of melting the snow and rain can cause water to rise above river banks and flood surrounding areas.
While floods caused by rivers tend to be predictable, a dam and dam failure could damage devastating property. Most river floods are due to storms that offer enough warning to people living within the vicinity to leave at a safe distance.
4. Sewage Flood
The flooding of sewage systems or treatment facilities happens when they are flooded by extreme rainfall, leading to the breakdown and release of untreated sewage into the surrounding body of water. Sewage flooding is the most destructive because sewage flows out of drains, pipes, toilets, sinks, or showers.
Infection, diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and other illnesses are common occurrences due to contaminated floodwater. Floods that cause flooding are among the most dangerous.
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5. Surface Water Flooding
Surface water, also referred to as Pluvial Water Flooding, is a form of flooding that occurs mainly due to heavy rainfall. Runoff from hillsides that cannot absorb the water because of poor soil or impermeable surfaces might lead to it. This water will eventually build up and cause flooding in low-lying areas. It may also be caused by drainage overflow, which happens if the drainage system cannot handle the water from heavy rains because it’s not sufficient or maintained well enough. It can cause it to become blocked and stop functioning.